Ketamine Pharmacology: An Update (Pharmacodynamics and Molecular Aspects, Recent Findings)


SUMMARY For more than 50 years, ketamine has proven to be a safe anesthetic drug with potent analgesic properties. The active enantiomer is S(+)-ketamine. Ketamine is mostly metabolized in norketamine, an active metabolite. During “dissociative anesthesia”, sensory inputs mayreach cortical receiving areas, but fail to be perceived in some association areas. Ketamine also enhances the descending inhibiting serotoninergic […]