Ketamine Pharmacology: An Update (Pharmacodynamics and Molecular Aspects, Recent Findings)


SUMMARY For more than 50 years, ketamine has proven to be a safe anesthetic drug with potent analgesic properties. The active enantiomer is S(+)-ketamine. Ketamine is mostly metabolized in norketamine, an active metabolite. During “dissociative anesthesia”, sensory inputs mayreach cortical receiving areas, but fail to be perceived in some association areas. Ketamine also enhances the descending inhibiting serotoninergic […]

Efficacy and safety of oral ketamine for the relief of intractable chronic pain: A retrospective 5-year study of 51 patients


Abstract Background: This work summarizes the efficiency, failures and adverse effects of oral administration of ketamine at home for intractable pain. Methods: This 5-year retrospective study involved testing ketamine by intravenous in-hospital administration, then a conversion to an oral route, or oral treatment directly administered at home. The daily intravenous dose was increased by steps of 0.5 mg/kg to attain […]